Naturalist, Expedition Leader, Skipper, Educator
Photographer, Author, Podcaster, Traveler, Educator
The Treaty recognising the sovereignty of Norway over the Archipelago of Spitsbergen or Svalbard Treaty was signed in Paris on 9 February 1920, as part of the Versailles peace negotiations at the end of World War I. It came into effect by law in Norway on 14 August 1925 as "Treaty between Norway, the USA, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Ireland and the British Overseas Dominions and Sweden with regard to Svalbard". The main points in the Treaty state that: Svalbard is a part of Norway; Tax and revenue exacted may only benefit Svalbard; The environment of Svalbard must be protected; There should not be any discrimination against citizens and companies from the signatory countries for residence and and access as well as running acitivities; Svalbard may not be used for military purposes. Presently the Svalbard Treaty has 43 registred parties: Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Denmark, the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, India, Iceland, Italy, Japan, China, Latvia, Lithuania, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Spain, the UK, Switzerland, Sweden, South Africa, South Korea, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, the USA, Venezuela, Austria.